V354 Cephei

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V354 Cephei
Cepheus constellation map.svg
Location of V354 Cep
Observation data
Epoch J2000.0      Equinox J2000.0 (ICRS)
Constellation Cepheus
Right ascension 22h 33m 34.643s[1]
Declination +58° 53′ 47.05″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 10.82 to 11.35[2]
Spectral type M2.5 Iab[3]
B−V color index +3.18[4]
Variable type LC[2]
Proper motion (μ) RA: –2.816[5] mas/yr
Dec.: –2.510[5] mas/yr
Parallax (π)0.4581 ± 0.1023[5] mas
Distance~9,000[6] ly
(3,500 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV)-7.57 (variable)[4]
Radius689[7]-1,520[4] R
Diameter689[7]-1,520[4] D
Luminosity76,000[7] - 369,000[4] L
Surface gravity (log g)−0.5[4] cgs
Temperature3,650[4] K
Other designations
V354 Cep, Case 75, 2MASS J22333464+5853470, IRAS 22317+5838
Database references

V354 Cephei is a red supergiant star located within the Milky Way. It is an irregular variable located approximately 9,000 light-years away from the Sun, and is currently considered one of the largest known stars and one of most luminous of its type. It has an estimated radius of between 689 and 1,520 solar radii (479,000,000 and 1.057×109 km; 3.20 and 7.07 au). If it were placed in the center of the Solar System, it would extend to between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn.


V354 Cephei is now clearly identified as a red supergiant variable star and included on surveys such as IRAS and 2MASS, but prior to its inclusion in the General Catalogue of Variable Stars in 1981, it was referred to only by its listings on relatively obscure catalogs.[8] It is too faint to be included in catalogs such as the Henry Draper Catalogue or Bonner Durchmusterung. It was included on a 1947 Dearborn Observatory survey as star 41575, but that ID is hardly ever used.[9]

V354 Cep has frequently been referred to as Case 75.[4][8] This is from one of several listings of cool stars made using the Burrell Schmidt telescope at the Warner and Swasey Observatory of Case Western Reserve University, although Case 75 is mistakenly identified as the nearby F3V star BD+58°2450.[10]


The Gaia Data Release 2 parallax for V354 Cep is 0.4581±0.1023 mas.[5] It is near the Cepheus OB1 stellar association and considered a likely member. This association is at a distance of approximately 3,500 parsecs.[11]


Size comparison of Betelgeuse, Mu Cephei, KY Cygni, and V354 Cephei, according to Levesque et al.[4]

The luminosity, and hence the size, of V354 Cep are disputed. Levesque et al. 2005, find a high luminosity of 369,000 L and consequently very large size of 1,520 D based on the assumption of an effective temperature of 3,650 K. From the same data, Mauron et al. 2011 derive a much smaller luminosity of 76,000 L, which implies a much smaller size around 689 D. They note the discrepancy but are unable to explain it.[7]

There are similar differences in the visual extinctions derived, between two and six magnitudes.[3][4]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Cutri, R. M.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Van Dyk, S.; Beichman, C. A.; Carpenter, J. M.; Chester, T.; Cambresy, L.; Evans, T. et al. (2003). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: 2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources (Cutri+ 2003)". VizieR On-line Data Catalog: II/246. Originally published in: 2003yCat.2246....0C 2246. Bibcode 2003yCat.2246....0C.
  2. 2.0 2.1 V354 Cep, database entry, The combined table of GCVS Vols I-III and NL 67-78 with improved coordinates, General Catalogue of Variable Stars, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia. Accessed on line November 12, 2010.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Verhoelst, T.; Van Der Zypen, N.; Hony, S.; Decin, L.; Cami, J.; Eriksson, K. (2009). "The dust condensation sequence in red supergiant stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics 498: 127. arXiv:0901.1262. Bibcode 2009A&A...498..127V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/20079063.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Levesque, Emily M.; Massey, Philip; Olsen, K. A. G.; Plez, Bertrand; Josselin, Eric; Maeder, Andre; Meynet, Georges (August 2005). "The Effective Temperature Scale of Galactic Red Supergiants: Cool, but Not As Cool As We Thought". The Astrophysical Journal 628 (2): 973–985. arXiv:astro-ph/0504337. Bibcode 2005ApJ...628..973L. doi:10.1086/430901.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Brown, A. G. A. (August 2018). "Gaia Data Release 2: Summary of the contents and survey properties". Astronomy & Astrophysics 616: A1. arXiv:1804.09365. Bibcode 2018A&A...616A...1G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051. Gaia DR2 record for this source at VizieR.
  6. V354 Cephei is in the Cep OB1 association, which has an adopted estimated distance modulus of 12.2. See Tables 1 and 2, Levesque et al. 2005.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Mauron, N.; Josselin, E. (2011). "The mass-loss rates of red supergiants and the de Jager prescription". Astronomy and Astrophysics 526: A156. arXiv:1010.5369. Bibcode 2011A&A...526A.156M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201013993.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Kholopov, P. N.; Samus', N. N.; Kukarkina, N. P.; Medvedeva, G. I.; Perova, N. B. (1981). "66th Name-List of Variable Stars". Information Bulletin on Variable Stars 2042: 1. Bibcode 1981IBVS.2042....1K.
  9. Lee, O. J.; Baldwin, R. J.; Hamlin, D. W.; Bartlett, T. J.; Gore, G. D.; Baldwin, T. J. (1943). "Dearborn catalog of faint red stars : Titanium oxide stars in zones -4. 5[degrees] to +13.5[degrees]". Annals of the Dearborn Observatory of Northwestern University 5. Bibcode 1943AnDea...5....1L.
  10. Nassau, J. J.; Blanco, V. M.; Morgan, W. W. (1954). "Reddened Early m- and S-Type Stars Near the Galactic Equator". Astrophysical Journal 120: 478. Bibcode 1954ApJ...120..478N. doi:10.1086/145936.
  11. Humphreys, R. M. (1978). "Studies of luminous stars in nearby galaxies. I. Supergiants and O stars in the Milky Way". Astrophysical Journal 38: 309. Bibcode 1978ApJS...38..309H. doi:10.1086/190559.

External links