Tau Scorpii

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Tau Scorpii
Diagram showing star positions and boundaries of the Scorpius constellation and its surroundings
Cercle rouge 100%.svg
Location of τ Scorpii (circled)
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Scorpius
Right ascension 16h 35m 52.95285s[1]
Declination −28° 12′ 57.6615″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) +2.82[2]
Characteristics
Spectral type B0.2 V[3]
U−B color index −1.039[2]
B−V color index −0.252[2]
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv)+2.0[4] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: −9.89[1] mas/yr
Dec.: −22.83[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π)6.88 ± 0.53[1] mas
Distance470 ± 40 ly
(150 ± 10 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV)−4.2[5]
Details
Mass15.0 ± 0.1,[6] 14.5–14.7[7] M
Radius6.5[3] R
Diameter6.5[3] D
Luminosity18,000,[8] 20,400[7] L
Surface gravity (log g)4.24[9] cgs
Temperature31,440,[10] 29,850[7] K
Metallicity [Fe/H]−0.14[9] dex
Rotation41 days[11]
Rotational velocity (v sin i)24[12] km/s
Age5.7 ± 1.0,[6] 5[7] Myr
Other designations
Paikauhale (star A), Alniyat, Al Niyat τ Sco, 23 Sco, FK5 620, GC 22303, HD 149438, HIP 81266, HR 6165, SAO 184481.[13]
Database references
SIMBADdata

Tau Scorpii (τ Sco, τ Scorpii) is a star in the southern zodiac constellation of Scorpius. The apparent visual magnitude of Tau Scorpii is +2.8,[2] while parallax measurements yield a distance estimate of roughly 470 light-years (150 parsecs) from Earth.[1]

Surface magnetic field of Tau Scorpii as reconstructed by means of Zeeman–Doppler imaging

Compared to the Sun, Tau Scorpii is a massive OB star with 15[6] times the Sun's mass and more than six times the radius of the Sun.[3] It is radiating about 20,400[7] times the Sun's luminosity from its outer envelope at an effective temperature of 31,440 K.[10] This gives it the blue-white hue characteristic of B-type stars.[14] As yet there is no evidence of a companion in orbit around τ Sco.[15] It is a magnetic star whose surface magnetic field was mapped by means of Zeeman–Doppler imaging.[16] Tau Scorpii is rotating relatively slowly with a period of 41 days.[11]

The spectrum of this star shows triply ionized oxygen (O IV) that is being generated by X-rays and the Auger ionization effect. Observations with the ROSAT space telescope showed it has a higher energy (harder) X-ray spectrum than is usual for B0 V stars. Over the energy range 0.8–1.2 keV, its X-ray luminosity is Lx = 1.8 × 1031 erg s−1 with a large Lx to Lbol of log Lx/Lbol = –6.53 from ASCA measurements. ROSAT measurements showed a log Lx/Lbol ≃ –5.93 for the range 0.1–2.4 keV.[15] The hard component of the X-ray spectrum from τ Sco as studied with XMM-Newton supports the presence of in-falling clumps of plasma in τ Sco.[15]

This star is a proper motion member of the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, the nearest such co-moving association of massive stars to the Sun.[5][7] The Upper Scorpius subgroup contains thousands of young stars with mean age 11 million years at average distance of 470 light years (145 parsecs)[7] A more recent analysis[7] of the HR diagram position for Tau Scorpii estimates its effective temperature to be 29,850 kelvins with a luminosity of 20,400 Suns, consistent with an isochronal age of 5 million years and an estimated mass of 14.5–14.7 solar masses.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 van Leeuwen, F. (November 2007), "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction", Astronomy and Astrophysics 474 (2): 653–664, arXiv:0708.1752, Bibcode 2007A&A...474..653V, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Gutierrez-Moreno, Adelina; Moreno, Hugo (June 1968), "A Photometric Investigation of the Scorpio-Centaurus Association", Astrophysical Journal Supplement 15: 459, Bibcode 1968ApJS...15..459G, doi:10.1086/190168
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Howk, J. Christopher et al. (May 2000), "Stagnation and Infall of Dense Clumps in the Stellar Wind of τ Scorpii", The Astrophysical Journal 534 (1): 348–358, arXiv:astro-ph/9912360, Bibcode 2000ApJ...534..348H, doi:10.1086/308730
  4. Wielen, R. et al. (1999), Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutions, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut Heidelberg, Bibcode 1999VeARI..35....1W
  5. 5.0 5.1 de Geus, E. J.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Lub, J. (June 1989), "Physical parameters of stars in the Scorpio-Centaurus OB association", Astronomy and Astrophysics 216 (1-2): 44–61, Bibcode 1989A&A...216...44D
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Tetzlaff, N.; Neuhäuser, R.; Hohle, M. M. (January 2011), "A catalogue of young runaway Hipparcos stars within 3 kpc from the Sun", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 410 (1): 190–200, arXiv:1007.4883, Bibcode 2011MNRAS.410..190T, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17434.x
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Mark J. Pecaut et al. (February 2012). "A Revised Age for Upper Scorpius and the Star Formation History among the F-type Members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association". Astrophysical Journal 746 (2): 154. arXiv:1112.1695. Bibcode 2012ApJ...746..154P. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/746/2/154.
  8. Kaler, James B., Al NIYAT (Tau Scorpii), University of Illinois, http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/alniyat-t.html, retrieved 2010-08-01
  9. 9.0 9.1 Kilian, J. (February 1994), "Chemical abundances in early B-type stars. 5: Metal abundances and LTE/NLTE comparison", Astronomy and Astrophysics 282 (3): 867–873, Bibcode 1994A&A...282..867K
  10. 10.0 10.1 Zorec, J. et al. (July 2009), "Fundamental parameters of B supergiants from the BCD system. I. Calibration of the (λ_1, D) parameters into Teff", Astronomy and Astrophysics 501 (1): 297–320, arXiv:0903.5134, Bibcode 2009A&A...501..297Z, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200811147
  11. 11.0 11.1 Strassmeier, Klaus G. (September 2009), "Starspots", The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review 17 (3): 251–308, Bibcode 2009A&ARv..17..251S, doi:10.1007/s00159-009-0020-6
  12. 6165, database entry, The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Preliminary Version), D. Hoffleit and W. H. Warren, Jr., CDS ID [1]. Accessed on line February 8, 2013.
  13. "tau Sco -- Star", SIMBAD (Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg), http://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad/sim-id?Ident=Tau+Sco, retrieved 2010-08-01
  14. "The Colour of Stars", Australia Telescope, Outreach and Education (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation), December 21, 2004, http://outreach.atnf.csiro.au/education/senior/astrophysics/photometry_colour.html, retrieved 2012-01-16
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Mewe, R. et al. (2003), "High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of τ Scorpii (B0.2V) with XMM-Newton", Astronomy & Astrophysics 398 (1): 203–11, Bibcode 2003A&A...398..203M, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20021577, http://dare.uva.nl/document/40494
  16. Donati, J.-F. et al. (2006), "The surprising magnetic topology of τ Sco: fossil remnant or dynamo output?", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 370 (2): 629–644, arXiv:astro-ph/0606156, Bibcode 2006MNRAS.370..629D, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10558.x


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