Elementary Particles

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Diagram showing the types of Elementary Particles

An elementary particle is a subatomic particles whose structure is unknown,[1] however, there is string theory; claiming that all matter in the universe and subatomic particles are made out of 11-dimensional strings that vibrate in different portions of energy.

Standard Model

The three colors which usually represent Quarks

The Standard Model is the theoretical classification describing all the currently known elementary particles. The standard model includes quarks, the building blocks of protons and neutrons. Quarks have color charge, mass, electric charge, and spin.


There are six «flavors» of quarks:

  • Up, first generation of matter with charge 2/3
  • Down, first generation of matter with charge -(1/3)
  • Top, the most massive with a mass of roughly that of a rhenium atom, third generation of matter
  • Bottom, third generation of matter
  • Strange, a second generation of matter building block of strange matter along with up and down quarks
  • Charm, second generation of matter

There are two down quarks and one up quark in a neutron and two up quarks and one down quarks in a proton.


Leptons are elementary particles (fermions) with spin 1/2 that are not affected by strong nuclear forces. They include electrons, as well as neutrinos, which only interact by gravity.


Bosons include fundamental particles such as photons (which make up Light), W and Z bosons, and the Higgs Boson, which is responsible for mass and is known for its metastable quantum field.


It has been hypothesized that quarks and leptons are made of even smaller components called preons.


  1. ISBN 978-94-007-2463-1