Preon star

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A preon star[1] is a theoretical type of compact star made of preons, which are "point-like" particles conceived to be subcomponents of quarks and leptons.[2] Their existence was first theorized in 2005 by Fredrik Sandin and Johan Hansson, both from the Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.[3] The theory behind them was that the sub-subatomic particles would have come before subatomic particles, which came before particles, and that the original stars were made of these sub-subatomic particles, with most gradually becoming made of sub-particles, and then particles. However, the theory postulates that it is possible for some stars made of the sub-subatomic particles to remain.[4] It is believed that they may also form out of massive stars that collapse too unstably to become neutron stars, but not enough to become black holes.[5]

Properties[edit]

The equation for the mass of a preon star is predicted to be: '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000001-QINU`"'.[5] Where:

Template:Var is the mass of the star.
'"`UNIQ--postMath-00000002-QINU`"' is the top quark compositeness energy scale.
Template:Var is the number of tera-electron volts.

The equation for the radius of a preon star is estimated to be: '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000003-QINU`"'.[5] Where:

Template:Var is the radius of the star.
'"`UNIQ--postMath-00000004-QINU`"' is the top quark compositeness energy scale.
Template:Var is the number of tera-electron volts.

The maximum mass of a preon star is predicted to be: '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000005-QINU`"'.[5] Where:

Template:Var is the mass of the earth.

The maximum radius of a preon star is predicted to be: '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000006-QINU`"'.[5] The average density of a preon star is predicted to be: '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000007-QINU`"'; however, the density of the center is predicted to be greater.[5]

If they exist, the eigenmode frequency for radial oscillations of a preon star will be 106 greater than that of a neutron star. As the radius will be roughly 105 smaller than the radius of a neutron star, if sound travels through preons at the same speed it does neutrons, then the frequency will be increased by 105, giving GHz frequencies. If sound travels faster in preons than it does neutrons, the frequency cannot exceed '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000008-QINU`"' even if the speed of light is approached.[5]

The existence of preons could explain ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, as no known type of star or object can project cosmic rays with as much energy as they have, going up to 1021 eV. The possibility of a massive star collapsing and, being too unstable to collapse only to a pulsar star, collapsing all the way to a pulsar preon star with a radius of a meter and a mass of 100 earths, would allow pulsar yields of up to '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000009-QINU`"', which would be more than enough for an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray. It is believed that any preon star under the maximum mass will be stable.[5]

If preons exist, they, and by extension preon stars, will not perform nucleosynthesis. Nor will such stars emit Hawking radiation. It is believed that a preon star will have a large magnetic field, and rapid rotation.[5]

Theory and evidence[edit]

One of the reasons that the theory of preon stars has so few backers, is that the existence of preons would contradict not only the theory of the Higgs boson, but also the Standard Model of Physics.[6] As the Higgs boson was tentatively confirmed by CERN, the prevailing theory at present is that preons' existence is impossible.[7] The two methods that are used to try to find preons – gravitational femtolensing and searching for gravitational waves – have so far yielded nothing.[3]

Preons, if they exist, will be impossible to create even with the Large Hadron Collider, as it would require conditions similar to those of the Big Bang.[8]

References[edit]

  1. Hansson, J; Sandin, F (2005). "Preon stars: a new class of cosmic compact objects". Physics Letters B 616 (1-2): 1-7. arXiv:astro-ph/0410417. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2005.04.034.
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{{{1}}}
Observation data
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Constellation {{{3}}}
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Right ascension {{{ra1}}}
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Temperature{{{8}}} K
Other designations
{{{1}}}, {{{2}}}
{{{1}}}, also known as {{{2}}}, is a star located in the constellation {{{3}}}. It is located {{{4}}} light years away from the Earth. {{{1}}} has a diameter of {{{5}}} D, making it around the size of the orbit of {{{6}}}. {{{1}}} has a stellar class of {{{7}}} and a temperature of {{{8}}} degrees Kelvin; it is a {{{9}}} that is currently burning {{{10}}} within its core. {{{1}}} is around {{{11}}} times brighter than the Sun. {{{12}}}{{{13}}}

References[edit]

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As a reminder, article comments are only for discussions on how to improve the article. Please direct other comments to a user's talk page. Please be formal and do not use excessive uppercase. Please be advised you may receive an automatic block if you break the article comments policy. For information regarding what is acceptable/not acceptable in article comments, please message Icons-flag-ru.png Joey (talk), Natalia (talk), Icons-flag-fr.png ynoss (talk), or Icons-flag-ca.png Daniel (older account/talk).