Io

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Io compared to the Moon and Earth. At full size, a pixel of this image would represent 29 kilometers.
This dramatic view of Jupiter's satellite Io shows two simultaneously occurring volcanic eruptions. One can be seen on the limb, (at lower right) in which ash clouds are rising more than 150 miles (260 kilometers) above the satellite's surface. The second can be seen on the terminator (shadow between day and night) where the volcanic cloud is catching the rays of the rising sun. The dark hemisphere of Io is made visible by light reflected from Jupiter. Seen in Io's night sky, Jupiter looms almost 40 times larger and 200 times brighter than our own full Moon. This photo was taken by Voyager 1 on March 8, 1979, looking back 2.6 million miles (4.5 million kilometers) at Io, three days after its historic encounter. This is the same image in which Linda A. Morabito, a JPL engineer, discovered the first extraterrestrial volcanic eruption (the bright curved volcanic cloud on the limb). Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

Io, also called Jupiter I, innermost of the four large moons (Galilean satellites) discovered around Jupiter by the Icons-flag-it.png Italian astronomer Galileo in 1610. It was probably also discovered independently that same year by the Icons-flag-de.png German astronomer Simon Marius, who named it after Io of Icons-flag-gr.png Greek mythology. Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system.

Io rotates at the same rate that it revolves around Jupiter (approximately 1.769 Earth days) and so always keeps the same face to Jupiter. Its nearly circular orbit has an inclination of only 0.04° to Jupiter’s equatorial plane and a radius of about 422,000 km (262,000 miles). The orbit is forced to be slightly eccentric by a gravitational resonance between Io and the Jovian moon Europa. The forced eccentricity causes intense tidal heating of Io—heating from internal friction due to continual flexing of the satellite—by Jupiter’s powerful gravitational field, which is the source of energy that powers the volcanoes.

When the Voyager 1 spacecraft flew by Io on March 5, 1979, it observed nine active volcanoes ejecting fountains of fine particles several hundred kilometres into space. Observations at higher resolution by the Galileo spacecraft some 20 years later indicated that as many as 300 volcanoes may be active on the satellite at a given time. The silicate lava that is spewing out is extremely hot (approximately 1,900 K [3,000 °F, 1,630 °C]) and resembles lavas produced more than three billion years ago on Earth. Volcanic material ejected from the surface creates a toroidal (doughnut-shaped) cloud of charged particles that follows Io’s orbit and wraps part of the way around Jupiter. The ejected material contains mostly ionized atoms of oxygen, sodium, and sulfur with smaller amounts of hydrogen and potassium. As the satellite travels in its orbit, passing through the magnetic field of Jupiter, it produces an electric current of some five million amperes along a flux tube of spiraling electrons that links Io with the giant planet.

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