InSight

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InSight
MarCO duo spacecraft model.png
InSight spacecraft model.png
Top: Artist's rendering of the MarCO CubeSats
Bottom: Artist's rendering of the InSight lander
NamesInterior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport
Geophysical Monitoring Station
Discovery 12
Mission typeMars lander
OperatorNASA / JPL
COSPAR ID2018-042A
SATCAT no.43457
WebsiteMars.NASA.gov/InSight
Mission durationPlanned: 709 sols (728 days)[1][2]
Current: Template:Age in sols sols (327 days) since landing
Spacecraft properties
ManufacturerLockheed Martin Space Systems
Launch mass694 kg (1,530 lb)[3]
Landing mass358 kg (789 lb)[3]
DimensionsDeployed: 6.0 × 1.56 × 1.0 m (19.7 × 5.1 × 3.3 ft)[4]-
Power600 W, solar / Li-ion battery[3]
Start of mission
Launch date5 May 2018, 11:05 (2018-05-05UTC11:05) UTC[5][6]
RocketAtlas V 401[7]
Launch siteVandenberg SLC-3E[7]
ContractorUnited Launch Alliance
Mars lander
Landing date26 November 2018[8]
Landing siteElysium Planitia[9][10]
Flyby of Mars
Spacecraft componentMars Cube One (MarCO)
Closest approach26 November 2018
Distance3,500 km (2,200 mi)[11]
Template:Infobox spaceflight/Instruments
InSight Mission Logo (transparent).png
← GRAIL
Lucy →

InSight is a robotic lander designed to study the deep interior of the planet Mars.[12][13] The mission launched on 5 May 2018 at 11:05 UTC[14][15]. At approximately 19:52:59 UTC[16] on 26 November 2018, and after a journey of 458 million km (nearly 300 million mi),[5][17] the lander successfully landed on the surface of Mars at Elysium Planitia, where it will deploy a seismometer and burrow a heat probe. It will also perform a series of radio science experiments to complement the studies of the internal structure and rotation of Mars.[18]

The mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA. The lander was manufactured by Lockheed Martin Space Systems. The name is an acronym for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.[1]

InSight's objective is to place a stationary lander equipped with a seismometer called SEIS produced by the French space agency CNES, and measure heat transfer with a heat probe called HP3 produced by the German space agency DLR to study the planet's early geological evolution. This could bring new understanding of the Solar System's terrestrial planetsMercury, Venus, Earth, Mars—and Earth's Moon. By reusing technology from the Mars Phoenix lander, which successfully landed on Mars in 2008, it was expected as of 2012 that the cost and risk would be reduced.[1]

The lander was originally planned for launch in March 2016[13][19]. However, following a persistent vacuum failure in the SEIS instrument prior to launch, with the 2016 launch window missed, InSight was returned to Lockheed Martin's facility in Denver, Colorado, for storage. NASA officials decided in March 2016 to spend an estimated US$150 million to delay launching InSight to May 2018.[6] This allowed time for the seismometer issue to be fixed, although it increased the cost from the previous US$675 million to a total of $830 million.[20]

History[edit]

InSight comes together with the backshell and surface lander being joined, 2015.

InSight was initially known as GEMS (Geophysical Monitoring Station), but its name was changed in early 2012 following a request by NASA.[21] Out of 28 proposals from 2010,[22] it was one of the three Discovery Program finalists receiving US$3 million in May 2011 to develop a detailed concept study.[23] In August 2012, InSight was selected for development and launch.[13] Managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with participation from scientists from several countries, the mission is cost-capped at US$425 million, not including launch vehicle funding.[24]

Lockheed Martin began construction of the lander on 19 May 2014,[25] with general testing starting in 27 May 2015.[26]

A persistent vacuum leak in the CNES-supplied seismometer known as the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) led NASA to postpone the planned launch in March 2016 to May 2018. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory took over development of the vacuum container for SEIS, with CNES handling instrument integration and test activities.[27]

When InSight was delayed, the rest of the spacecraft was returned to Lockheed Martin's factory in Colorado for storage, and the Atlas V rocket intended to launch the spacecraft was reassigned to the WorldView-4 mission.[28]

On 9 March 2016, NASA officials announced that InSight would be delayed until the 2018 launch window at an estimated cost of US$150 million.[6][8] The spacecraft was rescheduled to launch on 5 May 2018 for a Mars landing on 26 November at 3 p.m. The flight plan remained unchanged with launch using an Atlas V rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.[6][8] NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory was tasked with redesigning and building a new vacuum enclosure for the SEIS instrument, while CNES conducted instrument integration and testing.[27][29]

On 22 November 2017 InSight completed testing in a thermal vacuum, also known as TVAC testing, where the spacecraft is put in simulated space conditions with reduced pressure and various thermal loads.[30] On 23 January 2018, after a long storage, its solar panels were once again deployed and tested, and a second silicon chip containing 1.6 million names from the public was added to the lander.[31]

On 28 February 2018, InSight was shipped via C-17 cargo aircraft from the Lockheed Martin Space Systems building in Denver to the Vandenberg Air Force Base in California in order to be integrated to the launch vehicle.[32] The lander was launched on 5 May 2018 and arrived on Mars at approximately 19:54 UTC on 26 November 2018.

Science background[edit]

The difficulty of buliding an interplanetary seismometer was noted by NASA when the Viking 1 lander's seismometer did not deploy properly in 1976.[33] The seismometer on both Viking spacecrafts were mounted on the lander, which meant that it also picked up vibrations from various operations of the lander and by the wind.[34] The seismometer readings were used to estimate a Martian geological crust thickness between 14 and 18 km (8.7 and 11.2 mi) at the Viking 2 lander site.[35] The Viking 2 seismometer detected pressure from the Mars winds complementing the meteorology results.[35][36] There was one candidate for a possible marsquake, although it was not confirmed due to the limitations of the design, especially due to interference from other sources like wind. The wind data did prove useful in its own right, and despite the limitations of the data, widespread and large marsquakes were not detected.[37]

Radio Doppler measurements were taken with Viking and twenty years later with Mars Pathfinder, and in each case the axis of rotation of Mars was estimated. By combining this data the core size was constrained, because the change in axis of rotation over 20 years allowed a precession rate and from that the planet's moment of inertia to be estimated.[38] InSight's measurements of crust thickness, mantle viscosity, core radius and density, and seismic activity should result in an accuracy increase of 3× to 10× compared with current data.[39]

Seismometers were also left on the Moon from the Apollo 12, 14, 15 and 16 missions and provided many insights into lunar seismology, including the discovery of Moonquakes.[40] The Apollo seismic network, which was operated until 1977, detected at least 28 Moonquakes up to 5.5 on the Richter scale.[41]

Mission status[edit]

On 26 November 2018, NASA reported that the InSight lander has landed successfully on the planet Mars. A touchdown image has been received, taken through a transparent lens cap that has not yet been removed from the spacecraft camera. The next major step in the mission checklist is deployment of the spacecraft solar panels, which will be verified on Earth approximately five hours after touchdown. [42] The mission will take three months to deploy and commission the science instruments.[43]

Objectives[edit]

The InSight mission placed a single stationary lander on Mars to study its deep interior and address a fundamental issue of planetary and Solar System science: understanding the processes that shaped the rocky planets of the inner Solar System (including Earth) more than four billion years ago.[44]

Interiors of Earth, Mars and the Moon (artist concept)

InSight's primary objective is to study the earliest evolutionary history of the processes that shaped Mars. By studying the size, thickness, density and overall structure of Mars' core, mantle and crust, as well as the rate at which heat escapes from the planet's interior, InSight will provide a glimpse into the evolutionary processes of all of the rocky planets in the inner Solar System.[45][44] The rocky inner planets share a common ancestry that begins with a process called accretion. As the body increases in size, its interior heats up and evolves to become a terrestrial planet, containing a core, mantle and crust.[46] Despite this common ancestry, each of the terrestrial planets is later shaped and molded through a poorly understood process called differentiation. InSight mission's goal is to improve the understanding of this process and, by extension, terrestrial evolution, by measuring the planetary building blocks shaped by this differentiation: a terrestrial planet's core, mantle and crust.[46]

InSight lander on Mars (artist concept)

The mission will determine if there is any seismic activity, measure the rate of heat flow from the interior, estimate the size of Mars' core and whether the core is liquid or solid.[47] This data would be the first of its kind for Mars.[39] It is also expected that frequent meteor airbursts (10–200 detectable events per year for InSight) will provide additional seismo-acoustic signals to probe the interior of Mars.[48] The mission's secondary objective is to conduct an in-depth study of geophysics, tectonic activity and the effect of meteorite impacts on Mars, which could provide knowledge about such processes on Earth. Measurements of crust thickness, mantle viscosity, core radius and density, and seismic activity should result in an accuracy increase of 3× to 10× compared with current data.[39]

In terms of fundamental processes shaping planetary formation, it is thought that Mars contains the most in-depth and accurate historical record, because it is big enough to have undergone the earliest accretion and internal heating processes that shaped the terrestrial planets, but is small enough to have retained signs of those processes.[44]

After landing, the mission will take three months to deploy and commission the science instruments.[43] It will then begin its mission of observing Mars, which is expected to last for two years.[1]

Design[edit]

The Insight lander with solar panels deployed in a cleanroom

The mission further develops a design inherited from the 2008 Phoenix Mars lander.[49] Because InSight is powered by solar panels, it landed near the equator to enable maximum power for a projected lifetime of two years (1 Martian year).[1] The mission includes two microsatellites called Mars Cube One (MarCO) that launched with InSight but were flying in formation with InSight to Mars.[50]

Lander specifications[edit]

Mass
  • Total: 694 kg (1,530 lb)[3]
    • Lander: 358 kg (789 lb)[3]
    • Aeroshell: 189 kg (417 lb)[3]
    • Cruise stage: 79 kg (174 lb)[3]
    • Propellant and pressurant: 67 kg (148 lb)[3]
  • Mars Cube One CubeSats: 13.5 kg (30 lb) each[3]
Dimensions
About 6.0 m (19.7 ft) wide with solar panels deployed. The science deck is about 1.56 m (5.1 ft) wide and between 0.83 and 1.08 m (2.7 and 3.5 ft) high (depending on leg compression after landing).[3] The length of the robotic arm is 2.4 m (7.9 ft)[3]
Power
Power is generated by two round solar panels, each 2.15 m (7.1 ft) in diameter and consisting of SolAero ZTJ triple-junction solar cells made of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge arranged on Orbital ATK UltraFlex arrays. After touchdown on the Martian surface, the arrays are deployed by opening like a folding fan.[51][52]

Payload[edit]

InSight lander with labeled instruments
Test of the 2.4 meter long Instrument Deployment Arm, seen deploying SEIS
Laser retroreflector on InSight's deck

InSight's payload has a total mass of 50 kg, including science instruments and support systems such as the Auxiliary Payload Sensor Suite, cameras, the instrument deployment system, and a laser retroreflector.[3] The science payload consists of two main instruments, SEIS and HP3:

The SEIS instrument is supported by a suite of meteorological tools to characterize atmospheric disturbances that might affect the experiment. These include a vector magnetometer provided by UCLA that will measure magnetic disturbances such as those caused by the Martian ionosphere; a suite of air temperature, wind speed and wind direction sensors based on the Spanish/Finnish Rover Environmental Monitoring Station; and a barometer from JPL.[60][38]
  • The Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3), provided by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), is a self-penetrating heat flow probe.[59][49][61][62] Referred to as a "self-hammering nail" and nicknamed "the mole", it was designed to burrow as deep as 5 m (16 ft) below the Martian surface while trailing a tether with embedded heat sensors to measure how efficiently heat flows through Mars' core, and thus reveal unique information about the planet's interior and how it has evolved over time.[59][49][61][62] It trails a tether containing precise temperature sensors every 10 cm (3.9 in) to measure the temperature profile of the subsurface.[59][63] The tractor mole of the instrument was provided by the Polish company Astronika.[64]
  • The Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment (RISE) led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is a radio science experiment that will use the lander's X band radio to provide precise measurements of planetary rotation to better understand the interior of Mars.[65] X band radio tracking, capable of an accuracy under 2 cm, will build on previous Viking program and Mars Pathfinder data.[59] The previous data allowed the core size to be estimated, but with more data from InSight, the nutation amplitude can be determined.[59] Once spin axis direction, precession, and nutation amplitudes are better understood, it should be possible to calculate the size and density of the Martian core and mantle.[59] This should increase the understanding of the formation of terrestrial planets (e.g. Earth) and rocky exoplanets.[59]
  • Laser RetroReflector for InSight (LaRRI) is a corner cube retroreflector provided by the Italian Space Agency and mounted on InSight's top deck.[66][67] It will enable passive laser range-finding by orbiters even after the lander is retired,[68] and would function as a node in a proposed Mars geophysical network.[69] This device previously flew on the Schiaparelli lander as the Instrument for Landing-Roving Laser Retroreflector Investigations (INRRI), and was an aluminum dome 54 mm (2.1 in) in diameter and 25 g (0.9 oz) in mass featuring eight fused silica reflectors.[68]
  • Instrument Deployment Arm (IDA) is a 2.4 m robotic arm that will be used to deploy the SEIS and HP3 instruments to Mars' surface.[38]
  • The Instrument Deployment Camera (IDC) is a color camera based on the Mars Exploration Rover and Mars Science Laboratory navcam design. It is mounted on the Instrument Deployment Arm and will image the instruments on the lander's deck and provide stereoscopic views of the terrain surrounding the landing site. It features a 45-degree field of view and uses a 1024 × 1024 pixel CCD detector.[70] The IDC sensor was originally black and white for best resolution; a program was enacted that tested with a standard hazcam and, since development deadlines and budgets were met, it was replaced with a color sensor.[71]
  • The Instrument Context Camera (ICC) is a color camera based on the MER/MSL hazcam design. It is mounted below the lander's deck, and with its wide-angle 120-degree panoramic field of view will provide a complementary view of the instrument deployment area. Like the IDC, it uses a 1024 × 1024 pixel CCD detector.[70]

Launch[edit]

Launch of the Atlas V rocket carrying InSight and MarCO from Vandenberg Space Launch Complex 3-E.
Animation of InSight's trajectory from 5 May 2018 to 26 November 2018
   InSight ·   Earth ·   Mars

The spacecraft was launched on 5 May 2018 at 11:05 UTC on an Atlas V 401 launch vehicle (AV-078) from Vandenberg Air Force Base Space Launch Complex 3-East.[72] This was the first American interplanetary mission to launch from California.[73]

The launch was managed by NASA's Launch Services Program. InSight was originally scheduled for launch on 4 March 2016 on an Atlas V 401 (4 meter fairing/zero (0) solid rocket boosters/single (1) engine Centaur) from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, U.S.,[73] but was called off in December 2015 due to a vacuum leak on the SEIS instrument.[74][75][76] The rescheduled launch window ran from 5 May to 8 June 2018.

The journey to Mars took 6.5 months across 484 million km (301 million mi) for a touchdown on 26 November.[5][17] Landing successfully, a three-month-long deployment phase commenced as part of its two-year (about one Martian year) prime mission.[43]

Landing site[edit]

As InSight's science goals are not related to any particular surface feature of Mars, potential landing sites were chosen on the basis of practicality. Candidate sites needed to be near the equator of Mars to provide sufficient sunlight for the solar panels year round, have a low elevation to allow for sufficient atmospheric braking during EDL, flat, relatively rock-free to reduce the probability of complications during landing, and soft enough terrain to allow the heat flow probe to penetrate well into the ground.

An optimal area that meets all these requirements is Elysium Planitia, so all 22 initial potential landing sites were located in this area.[77] The only two other areas on the equator and at low elevation, Isidis Planitia and Valles Marineris, are too rocky. In addition, Valles Marineris has too steep a gradient to allow safe landing.[9] In September 2013, the initial 22 potential landing sites were narrowed down to 4, and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter was then used to gain more information on each of the 4 potential sites before a final decision was made.[9][78] Each site consists of a landing ellipse that measures about 130 by 27 km (81 by 17 mi).[79]

In March 2017, scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory announced that the landing site had been selected. It is located in western Elysium Planitia at .[80] The landing site is about 600 km (370 mi) north from where the Curiosity rover is operating in Gale Crater.[81]

All four proposed landing sites are on Elysium Planitia; this landing ellipse is one of them, located at .
Image footprints by HiRise on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for studying the planned Insight landing ellipse. From east to west the scale is about 160 km (100 mi)

Landing[edit]

InSight landing and deploying instruments (artist concepts)

On 26 November 2018, at approximately 19:54 UTC, NASA had received the transmission that InSight successfully landed at Elysium Planitia.[5][15][17] After landing, the mission will take three months to deploy and commission the science instruments.[43] It will then begin its mission of observing Mars, which is expected to last for two years.[1]

CubeSats[edit]

Flight hardware of Mars Cube One (MarCO)
MarCO CubeSats relaying data during InSight's landing (artist concept)

The Mars Cube One (MarCO) spacecraft are a pair of 6U CubeSats that piggybacked with the InSight mission to test CubeSat navigation and endurance in deep space, and to help relay real-time communications (eight minute delay)[43] during the probe's entry, descent and landing (EDL) phase.[82][83] The two 6U CubeSats, named MarCO A and B, are identical.[84] They measure 30 cm × 20 cm × 10 cm (11.8 in × 7.9 in × 3.9 in) and flew as a pair for redundancy. The Atlas V rocket launched the MarCO CubeSats together with the InSight cruise stage: the two CubeSats separated from the cruise stage after launch, and flew their own trajectory to Mars while flanking the lander.[50] They did not enter orbit but flew past Mars during the EDL phase of the mission and relayed InSight's telemetry in real time.[85][86]

Team and participation[edit]

The InSight science and engineering team includes scientists and engineers from many disciplines, countries and organizations. The science team assigned to InSight includes scientists from institutions in the U.S., France, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, Spain, Poland and the United Kingdom.[87]

Mars Exploration Rover project scientist W. Bruce Banerdt is the principal investigator for the InSight mission and the lead scientist for the SEIS instrument.[88] Suzanne Smrekar, whose research focuses on the thermal evolution of planets and who has done extensive testing and development on instruments designed to measure the thermal properties and heat flow on other planets,[89] is the lead for InSight's HP3 instrument. The Principal Investigator for RISE is William Folkner at JPL.[90] The InSight mission team also includes project manager Tom Hoffman and deputy project manager Henry Stone.[87]

Major contributing agencies and institutions:[67]

NASA team cheers as the InSight Lander Touches Down on the Planet Mars. (26 November 2018)

National agencies:

Contributing institutions:

Name chips[edit]

As part of its public outreach, NASA organized a program where members of the public were able to have their names sent to Mars aboard InSight. Due to its launch delay, two rounds of sign-ups were conducted totaling 2.4 million names:[91][92] 826,923 names were registered in 2015[93] and a further 1.6 million names were added in 2017.[94] An electron beam was used to etch letters only ​11000 the width of a human hair onto 8 mm (0.3 in) silicon wafers.[93] The first chip was installed on the lander in November 2015 and the second on 23 January 2018.[93][94]

Name Chips on InSight
The first name chip for InSight
The second name chip, inscribed with 1.6 million names, is placed on InSight in January 2018.

Image gallery[edit]

InSight on way to Mars
Exterior (artist concept)
Deck
Interior

Template:Features and artificial objects on Mars.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  63. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  64. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  65. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  66. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  67. 67.0 67.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  68. 68.0 68.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  69. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  70. 70.0 70.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  71. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  72. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  73. 73.0 73.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  74. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  75. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  76. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  77. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  78. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  79. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  80. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 886: bad argument #1 to 'sub' (string expected, got table).
  81. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  82. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  83. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  84. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  85. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  86. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  87. 87.0 87.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  88. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  89. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  90. Mars InSight Landing Press Kit. (PDF) NASA. Published: November 2018.
  91. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  92. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  93. 93.0 93.1 93.2 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  94. 94.0 94.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).


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External links[edit]

Template:Insight Template:Mars spacecraft Template:Planetary Missions Program Office

Template:Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Template:Orbital launches in 2018 Template:2018 in space