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Canada

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Herbert Lake at Icefields Parkway (Promenade des Glaciers). Alberta, Canada.

Canada
Template:Infobox country/imagetable
Motto: Template:Native phrase
(English: "From Sea to Sea")
Anthem: "O Canada"
Projection of North America with Canada in green
CapitalOttawa
Largest cityToronto
Official languages
Ethnic groups
Religion
DemonymCanadian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary
constitutional monarchy[4]
Template:Infobox country/multirow
LegislatureParliament
Senate
House of Commons
Independence from the United Kingdom
Template:Infobox country/multirow
Area
• Total area
Template:Convinfobox (2nd)
• Water (%)
8.92
• Total land area
9,093,507 km2 (3,511,023 sq mi)
Population
• Q2 2018 estimate
37,067,011[5] (38th)
• 2016 census
35,151,728[6]
• Density
Template:Convinfobox (228th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$1.847 trillion[7] (15th)
• Per capita
$49,775[7] (20th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$1.798 trillion[7] (10th)
• Per capita
$48,466[7] (15th)
Gini (2012)31.6[8]
medium · 20th[9]
HDI (2015)Template:Increase 0.920[10]
very high · 10th
CurrencyCanadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zone(UTC−3.5 to −8)
• Summer (DST)
 (UTC−2.5 to −7)
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd (AD)[11]
Drives on theright
Calling code+1
Internet TLD.ca

Icons-flag-ca.pngCanada (Template:IPA-fr) is a country located in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra. Consequently, its population is highly urbanized, with 82 percent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal in Icons-flag-mq.png Quebec, and Vancouver. Canada's climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons.

Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century, the British and French established colonies, the first being the colony of Canada established by France in 1535. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, British North America gained and lost territory until, by the late 18th century, it controlled most of what comprises Canada today. On July 1, 1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia were federated to form the semi-autonomous federal Dominion named Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to the Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming contemporary Canada. Canada achieved independence gradually beginning with responsible government in the 1830s and culminating with the patriation of the Constitution in 1982. In 1931, Canada achieved near-total independence from the United Kingdom with the Statute of Westminster, except for the power to amend its constitution.

Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.

Canada is a developed country and has the fifteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the tenth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. Canada is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie, and part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.

Geography and climate[edit]

Canada occupies much of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south, and the U.S. state of Alaska to the northwest. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean.[12] Greenland is to the northeast and to the southeast Canada shares a maritime boundary with the Republic of France's overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the last vestige of New France.[13] By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. By land area alone, however, Canada ranks fourth, the difference being due to it having the world's largest proportion of fresh water lakes.[14] Of Canada's thirteen provinces and territories, only two are landlocked (Alberta and Saskatchewan) while the other eleven all directly border one of three oceans.

Canada is home to the world's northernmost settlement, Canadian Forces Station Alert, on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island – latitude 82.5°N – which lies 817 kilometres (508 mi) from the North Pole.[15] Much of the Canadian Arctic is covered by ice and permafrost. Canada has the longest coastline in the world, with a total length of 243,042 kilometres (151,019 mi);[16] additionally, its border with the United States is the world's longest land border, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi).[17] Three of Canada's arctic islands, Baffin Island, Victoria Island and Ellesmere Island, are among the ten largest in the world.[18]

Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield.[19] Canada has over 2,000,000 lakes—563 greater than 100 km2 (39 sq mi)—which is more than any other country, containing much of the world's fresh water.[20][21] There are also fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies and the Coast Mountains.[22]

The Mount Meager massif as seen from the east near Pemberton. Summits left to right are Capricorn Mountain, Mount Meager and Plinth Peak.

Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably Mount Meager massif, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley massif, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex.[23] The volcanic eruption of the Tseax Cone in 1775 was among Canada's worst natural disasters, killing an estimated 2,000 Nisga'a people and destroying their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia.[24] The eruption produced a 22.5-kilometre (14.0 mi) lava flow, and, according to Nisga'a legend, blocked the flow of the Nass River.[25]

Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary from region to region. Winters can be harsh in many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F), but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills.[26] In noncoastal regions, snow can cover the ground for almost six months of the year, while in parts of the north snow can persist year-round. Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter. On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F), with temperatures in some interior locations occasionally exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).[27]

Science and technology[edit]

A shuttle in space, with Earth in the background. A mechanical arm labelled "Canada" rises from the shuttle.
The Canadarm robotic manipulator in action on Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-116 mission in 2006

In 2015, Canada spent approximately C$31.6 billion on domestic research and development, of which around $7 billion was provided by the federal and provincial governments.[28] As of 2015, the country has produced thirteen Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry, and medicine,[29][30] and was ranked fourth worldwide for scientific research quality in a major 2012 survey of international scientists.[31] It is furthermore home to the headquarters of a number of global technology firms.[32] Canada has one of the highest levels of Internet access in the world, with over 33 million users, equivalent to around 94 percent of its total 2014 population.[33]

The Canadian Space Agency operates a highly active space program, conducting deep-space, planetary, and aviation research, and developing rockets and satellites.[34] Canada was the third country to design and construct a satellite after the Soviet Union and the United States, with the 1962 Alouette 1 launch.[35] Canada is a participant in the International Space Station (ISS), and is a pioneer in space robotics, having constructed the Canadarm, Canadarm2 and Dextre robotic manipulators for the ISS and NASA's Space Shuttle.[36] Since the 1960s, Canada's aerospace industry has designed and built numerous marques of satellite, including Radarsat-1 and 2, ISIS and MOST.[37] Canada has also produced one of the world's most successful and widely used sounding rockets, the Black Brant; over 1,000 Black Brants have been launched since the rocket's introduction in 1961.[38] In 1984, Marc Garneau became Canada's first male astronaut, followed by Canada's second and first female astronaut Roberta Bondar in 1992.[39]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]


References[edit]

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  4. Hail, M; Lange, S (February 25, 2010). "Federalism and Representation in the Theory of the Founding Fathers: A Comparative Study of US and Canadian Constitutional Thought". Publius: The Journal of Federalism 40 (3): 366–388. doi:10.1093/publius/pjq001. JSTOR 40865314.
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  11. ISO 8601 is the official date format of the Government of Canada: Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value). The dd/mm/yy and mm/dd/yy formats also remain in common use; see Date and time notation in Canada.
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  24. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
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  28. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  29. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value). Note that this source was published before 2011 and as such does not include Ralph M. Steinman.
  30. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
  31. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).
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  39. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 379: attempt to call method 'match' (a nil value).


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Further reading[edit]

Overview

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History

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  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1 at line 876: attempt to call method 'sub' (a nil value). ISBN 978-0-8020-5016-8, ISBN 978-0-8020-2801-3

Geography and climate

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Government and law

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Social welfare

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Foreign relations and military

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Economy

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Demography and statistics

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Culture

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Indigenous peoples

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External links[edit]

Overviews
Government
Travel
Studies