Congenital heart defects

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A congenital heart defect (or CHD for short), also known as a congenital heart anomaly, congenital heart disease, or simply a heart defect, is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth.[1] Signs and symptoms depend on the specific type of problem, while symptoms can be anywhere between harmless to life-threatening.[2] When present, they can cause rapid breathing, blue skin, poor weight gain, and tiredness.[3] This article will cover a few notable examples.

Ventricular septal defect[edit]

Figure 1.. A diagram showing the types of ventricular septal defects: 1: Conoventricular, malaligned, 2: Perimembranous, 3: Inlet, 4: Muscular

A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a defect in the ventricular septum, the wall dividing the left and right ventricles of the heart (Figure 1). The extent of the opening may vary from pin size to complete absence of the ventricular septum, creating one common ventricle. It will require surgical intervention.[4]

Transposition of the great vessels[edit]

Figure 2.. A diagram showing an example of the Transposition of the great arteries.

Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a classification of congenital heart defects involving an abnormal or incorrect arrangement of any of the great vessels (superior and/or inferior venae cavae, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta). Congenital heart diseases involving only the primary arteries (pulmonary trunk and aorta) belong to a sub-group called transposition of the great arteries (Figure 2).


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