List of largest stars

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The planets of our Solar System, including Earth compared to the Sun and other stars.

Below is an ordered list of the largest stars currently known by radius (half of the diameter), or the diameter itself in terms of the Sun's diameter (same as measuring a star's radius by the same amount of solar radii). The unit of measurement used is the radius of the Sun (approximately 695,700 km; 432,288 mi) for the radius or the diameter of the Sun (1,392,400 km) for a diameter.

The exact order of this list is very incomplete, as great uncertainties currently remain, especially when deriving various important parameters used in calculations, such as stellar luminosity and effective temperature. Often stellar radii can only be expressed as an average or within a large range of values. Values for stellar radii vary significantly in sources and throughout the literature, mostly as the boundary of the very tenuous atmosphere (opacity) greatly differs depending on the wavelength of light in which the star is observed.

Radii of several stars can be directly obtained by stellar interferometry. Other methods can use lunar occultations or from eclipsing binaries, which can be used to test other indirect methods of finding true stellar size. Only a few useful supergiant stars can be occulted by the Moon, including Antares and Aldebaran. Examples of eclipsing binaries include Epsilon Aurigae, VV Cephei, HR 5171, and the red-giant binary system KIC 9246715 in the constellation of Cygnus.[1]

List

List of the largest stars
Star name Solar radii
(Sun = 1)
Method[2] Notes
Stephenson 2-18 2,150[3] L/Teff Located within close proximity of the massive open cluster Stephenson 2, where 26 red supergiants are located. Possibly a foreground object and therefore much smaller.[4]
VY Canis Majoris 2,069[5][6] AD Used to be described as the largest known star based on a diameter of 1,800–2,100 D.[7] Older estimates gave the diameter of VY CMa as above 3,000 D,[8] or as little as 600 D.[9] Wittowski et al (2012) gives 1,420 D.1,420 ± 120[10][11]
LGGS J004539.99+415404.1 1,980[12]–2,377[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
Orbit of Saturn 1,940–2,169 Reported for reference
MSX LMC 597 (W60 A27) 1,882–1,953[14] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J004520.67+414717.3 1,870[12]–2,510[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
UY Scuti 1,708 ± 192[15] AD This value was based on an angular diameter and distance of 2.9 kpc. Gaia Data Release 2 suggests a distance of 1.55 kpc and a consequently smaller diameter of 755 D.[16] However, the Gaia parallax is considered unreliable (until further observations) due to a very high level of astrometric noise.[17]
LGGS J003919.11+404319.2 1,685[18] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
WOH S71 (LMC 23095) 1,662[19]–1,896[20] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
HV 2242 (WOH S69) 1,645[20] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
SMC 78282 (PMMR 198) 1,600[21] L/Teff Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J013339.28+303118.8 1,565[22]–1,863[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
WOH G64 1,540 ± 77[23][24] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J013312.26+310053.3 1,537[22]–1,765[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
MSX LMC 1204 (WOH S72) 1,537–1,709[14] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
RSGC1-F01 1,530[25] L/Teff Located in the open cluster RSGC1
LGGS J004431.71+415629.1 1,505[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
W61 8-88 (WOH S465) 1,491[20] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J004336.68+410811.8 1,485[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
HV 888 (WOH S140) 1,477[26]–1,974[27] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Another recent estimate gives 1,765 D.[20]
UCAC4 116-007944 (MSX LMC 810) 1,468[20] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
W60 A78 (WOH S459) 1,445[20] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
HV 12998 (WOH S369) 1,443[20] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
W60 A72 (WOH S453) 1,441[20] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J013418.56+303808.6 1,436[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
LGGS J003951.33+405303.7 1,425[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
WOH S286 1,417[20] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
AH Scorpii 1,411 ± 124[15] AD AH Sco is a variable by nearly 3 magnitudes in the visual range, and an estimated 20% in luminosity. The variation in diameter is not clear because the temperature also varies.
LGGS J004428.48+415130.9 1,410[12]–1,504[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
MG73 46 (MSX LMC 891) 1,385[27]–1,838[20] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
WOH S281 (IRAS 05261-6614) 1,376[28]–1,459[20] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
IRAS 05280-6910 1,367[19]–1,738[29] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
S Persei 1,364 ± 6[30] AD A red supergiant located in the Perseus Double Cluster. Levesque et al. 2005 calculated diameters of 780 D and 1,230 D based on K-band measurements.[31] Older estimates gave up to 2,853 D based on higher luminosities.[32]
VX Sagittarii 1,356[33] AD The most luminous AGB star ever discovered at bolometric magnitude –8.6.[33]
LGGS J004306.62+413806.2 1,349[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
PHL 293B 1,348–1,463[34] L/Teff A luminous blue variable star located in the low metallicity galaxy PHL 293B. It is thought to have disappeared.
LGGS J004648.83+420418.4 1,346[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J013414.27+303417.7 1,342[22]–1,953[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
RSGC1-F03 1,325[3] L/Teff Located in the open cluster RSGC1.
LGGS J004438.65+412934.1 1,320[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
HV 5993 (WOH S464) 1,319[27]–1,531[20] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
PMMR 62 1,313[21] L/Teff Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud
SW Cephei 1,308[35] AD
SMC 18136 (PMMR 37) 1,307[21] L/Teff Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J004438.65+412934.1 1,320[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J013318.20+303134.0 1,295[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
LMC 170079 1,294[21] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J05294221-6857173 1,292[22] L/Teff
Z Doradus 1,271[21] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J004312.43+413747.1 1,270[12]–1,630[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004632.18+415935.8 1,265[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J013412.27+305314.1 1,258[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
LGGS J013310.71+302714.9 1,252[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
LGGS J004148.74+410843.0 1,248[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004514.91+413735.0 1,250[12]–1,575[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J013403.73+304202.4 1,249[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
LGGS J004428.12+415502.9 1,240[12]–1,259[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
RSGC1-F09 1,230[3] L/Teff Located in the open cluster RSGC1.
LGGS J004633.38+415951.3 1,229[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004416.28+412106.6 1,222[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
SMC 5092 (PMMR 9) 1,216[21] L/Teff Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud
IRAS 05346-6949 1,211[23]–2,064[14] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J004027.36+410444.9 1,201[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004125.23+411208.9 1,200[12]–1,602[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J013423.29+305655.0 1,199[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
HV 2532 (WOH S287) 1,195[21] L/Teff Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J004506.85+413408.2 1,194[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
HD 90587 1,191[35] AD
HV 2084 (PMMR 186) 1,187[21] L/Teff Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud
NML Cygni 1,183[36] L/Teff
LGGS J004503.35+413026.3 1,174[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004304.62+410348.4 1,171[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004524.97+420727.2 1,170[12]–1,476[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004047.82+410936.4 1,167[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
Westerlund 1-26 1,165–1,221[37] L/Teff Very uncertain parameters for an unusual star with strong radio emission. The spectrum is variable but apparently the luminosity is not.
LGGS J004138.35+412320.7 1,159[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J013353.91+302641.8 1,157[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
RSGC1-F08 1,150[25] L/Teff Located in the open cluster RSGC1.
W60 B90 (WOH S264) 1,149[28]–2,555[20] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J013356.84+304001.4 1,149[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
HD 62745 1,145[35] AD
LGGS J004347.31+411203.6 1,143[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004047.22+404445.5 1,140[12]–1,379[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004035.08+404522.3 1,140[12]–1,354[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J013343.30+303318.9 1,139[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
LBV 1806-20 1,135[38] L/Teff Based on an unlikely estimate of 5 million L,[39] but the luminosity has been revised later only 2 million L.[40][41]
MY Cephei 1,134[42]–2,061[25] L/Teff Not to be confused with Mu Cephei (see below). Older estimates have given up to 2,440 D based on much cooler temperatures.[43]
LGGS J003942.92+402051.1 1,133[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004124.80+411634.7 1,130[12]–1,423[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J013454.31+304109.8 1,122[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
LGGS J004731.12+422749.1 1,121[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J013233.77+302718.8 1,129[22] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
HV 2781 (WOH S470) 1,129[21] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
RSGC1-F02 1,128[25] L/Teff Located in the open cluster RSGC1
SMC 56389 (PMMR 148) 1,128[21] L/Teff Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J004451.76+420006.0 1,116[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J013400.91+303414.9 1,115[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
ST Cephei 1,109[35] AD
HV 2561(LMC 141430) 1,107[21] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J004219.25+405116.4 1,103[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
HD 102115 1,100[35] AD
LGGS J004107.11+411635.6 1,100[12]–1,207[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004253.25+411613.9 1,099[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004124.81+411206.1 1,094[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004415.76+411750.7 1,084[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004447.74+413050.0 1,083[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J013416.89+305158.3 1,081[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
LGGS J004031.00+404311.1 1,080[12]–1,383[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
SMC 49478 (PMMR 115) 1,077[21] L/Teff Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud
V366 Andromedae 1,076[35] AD
LGGS J003943.89+402104.6 1,076[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
Trumpler 27-1 1,073[16] L/Teff Located in the massive possible open cluster Trumpler 27
LGGS J013336.64+303532.3 1,073[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
HV 897 (WOH S161) 1,073[21] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
SMC 20133 (PMMR 41) 1,072[21] L/Teff Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud
LMC 174714 1,072[21] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J013336.64+303532.3 1,073[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
LGGS J013326.90+310054.2 1,071[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
LGGS J004531.13+414825.7 1,070[12]–1,420[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
IM Cassiopeiae 1,068[35] AD
HV 11262 (PMMR 16) 1,067[21] L/Teff Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Orbit of Jupiter 1,064–1,173 Reported for reference
LGGS J003811.56+402358.2 1,060[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004030.64+404246.2 1,060[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
HR 5171 Aa (V766 Centauri Aa) 1,060–1,160[44] L/Teff
LGGS J004631.49+421133.1 1,060[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J003942.42+403204.1 1,057[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004346.18+411515.0 1,057[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004638.17+420008.9 1,056[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004501.30+413922.5 1,054[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
SMC 25879 (PMMR 54) 1,053[21] L/Teff Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J013416.28+303353.5 1,048[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
SU Persei 1,048[35] AD
LGGS J013322.82+301910.9 1,048[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
LGGS J013328.85+310041.7 1,046[13] L/Teff Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
RSGC1-F05 1,047[3] L/Teff Located in the open cluster RSGC1.
WX Piscium 1,044[45] L/Teff
WOH G371 (LMC 146126) 1,043[21] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
WOH S327 (LMC 142202) 1,043[21] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
V358 Cassiopeiae 1,043[46] AD A red hypergiant star in the constellation of Cassiopeia.[47]
LGGS J003910.56+402545.6 1,042[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004114.18+403759.8 1,040[12]–1,249[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J003912.77+404412.1 1,037[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004507.90+413427.4 1,034[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004406.60+411536.6 1,033[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
IRAS 04509-6922 1,027[23] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
AS Cephei 1,026[35] AD
LGGS J004120.25+403838.1 1,021[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004108.42+410655.3 1,021[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004125.72+411212.7 1,020[12]–1,359[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004059.50+404542.6 1,020[12]–1,367[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004607.45+414544.6 1,018[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
HD 167861 1,016[35] AD
LGGS J004305.77+410742.5 1,015[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004424.94+412322.3 1,013[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
HV 986 (WOH S368) 1,010[48] L/Teff Located in the Large Magellanic Cloud
LGGS J004415.17+415640.6 1,008[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
LGGS J004118.29+404940.3 1,005[13] L/Teff Located in the Andromeda Galaxy
The following stars with sizes below 1,000 solar radii are shown for comparison.
CZ Hydrae 986[49] L/Teff One of the coolest stars at 2000 K.[49]
Mu Cephei (Herschel's "Garnet Star") 972 ± 228[50] L/Teff Prototype of the obsolete class of the Mu Cephei variables and also one of reddest stars in the night sky in terms of the B-V color index.[51] Other estimates have given as high as 1,650 D based on angular diameter.[52]
V602 Carinae 932[16]–1,151[35] AD
Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) 764+116
−62
[53]
AD Star with the third largest apparent size after R Doradus and the Sun. Brightest red supergiant in the night sky. Another estimate gives 955±217 D[54]
Antares A (Alpha Scorpii A) 707[35] AD Antares was originally calculated to be over 850 D,[55][56] but those estimates are likely to have been affected by asymmetry of the atmosphere of the star.[57]
V354 Cephei 685[16] L/Teff
KY Cygni 672[16]–1,420[31][58] L/Teff
119 Tauri (CE Tauri) 587–593[59] AD Can be occulted by the Moon, allowing accurate determination of its apparent diameter.
CW Leonis 580–686[60] L/Teff Prototype of carbon stars. CW Leo was mistakenly identified as the claimed planet "Nibiru" or "Planet X".
Mira A (Omicron Ceti) 541[36] AD Prototype Mira variable. De beck et al. 2010 calculates 541 D.[36]
VV Cephei A 516[61]–1,000[62] EB VV Cep A is a highly distorted star in a close binary system, losing mass to the secondary for at least part of its orbit. Data from the most recent eclipse has cast additional doubt on the accepted model of the system. Older estimates give up to 1,900 D[31]
V382 Carinae (x Carinae) 485 ± 40[63] AD Yellow hypergiant, one of the rarest types of a star.
Pistol Star 435[64] AD Blue hypergiant, among the most massive and luminous stars known.
HD 179821 400–450[44] DSKE V1427 Aquilae may be a yellow hypergiant or a much less luminous star.
V509 Cassiopeiae 390–910[65] AD Yellow hypergiant, one of the rarest types of a star.
Inner limits of the asteroid belt 380 Reported for reference
IRC +10420 380[66] L/Teff A yellow hypergiant that has increased its temperature into the LBV range. De beck et al. 2010 calculates 1,342 D based on a much cooler temperature.[36]
V688 Monocerotis 372[49] L/Teff Also one of the coolest stars at 2000 K.[49]
R Doradus 298 ± 21[67] AD Star with the second largest apparent size after the Sun.
Orbit of Mars 297–358 Reported for reference
La Superba (Y Canum Venaticorum) 289[35]–352[68] AD and L/Teff Referred to as La Superba by Angelo Secchi. Currently one of the coolest and reddest stars.
Sun's red giant phase 256[69] At this point, the Sun will engulf Mercury and Venus, and possibly the Earth although it will move away from its orbit since the Sun will lose a third of its mass. During the helium burning phase, it will shrink to 10 D but will later grow again and become an unstable AGB star, and then a white dwarf after making a planetary nebula.[70][71] Reported for reference
Rho Cassiopeiae 242[35] AD Yellow hypergiant, one of the rarest types of a star.
Eta Carinae A ~240[72] Previously thought to be the most massive single star, but in 2005 it was realized to be a binary system. During the Great Eruption, the size was much larger at around 1,400 D.[73] η Car is calculated to be between 60 D and 881 D.[74]
Orbit of Earth 215 (211–219) Reported for reference
Solar System Habitable Zone 200–520[75] (uncertain) Reported for reference
Orbit of Venus 154–157 Reported for reference
Epsilon Aurigae A (Almaaz A) 143–358[76] AD ε Aurigae was incorrectly claimed in 1970 as the largest star with a size between 2,000 D and 3,000 D,[77] even though it later turned out not to be an infrared light star but rather a dusk torus surrounding the system.
Deneb (Alpha Cygni) 99.84[35] AD Prototype Alpha Cygni variable.
Peony Star 92[78] AD Candidate for most luminous star in the Milky Way.
Canopus (Alpha Carinae) 71[79] AD Second brightest star in the night sky.
Orbit of Mercury 66–100 Reported for reference
Aldebaran (Alpha Tauri) 44.13 ± 0.84[80] AD Fourteenth brightest star in the night sky
R136a1 39.2[81] L/Teff Also on record as one of the most massive and luminous stars known (215 M and 6.2 million L).
Polaris (Alpha Ursae Minoris) 37.5[82] AD The current northern pole star.
Arcturus (Alpha Boötis) 24.25[35] AD Brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere.
HDE 226868 20–22[83] The supergiant companion of black hole Cygnus X-1. The black hole is around 500,000 times smaller than the star.
Sun 1 The largest object in the Solar System.
Reported for reference

References

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